adaptation would not be needed everywhere in a world limited to . warming, the scale of change needed would be challenging to implement. More knowledge is needed on the cost-effectiveness and scalability of various american flag until valhalla warrior viking shirt adaptation options. For example, there is no evidence for the macro-economic viability of
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both clean energy and filthy coal. climate talks. Large oil- and gas-producing countries share certain interests in ecological governance, or in its prevention, that cut across ideology and continental location, whereas countries whose landscapes serve as important carbon sinks also seek common cause, as do those whose circumstance puts them at shared risks for particular kinds of disaster. Shared ecogeographic interests can matter more than party lines when the transversal economic solidarities of energy production, and its consequences, come to american flag until valhalla warrior viking shirt outweigh cartographic, historical, or ethnic proximity. , the target that is almost certainly beyond our technical and economic means. But global warming is not the only overarching concern. We do not know how much more of natural land cover and what share of biodiversity we can lose with relative impunity, and if the global population were to survive in relatively large numbers for much longer than its recorded period , it would almost certainly run into some material restrictions. mean projection looks very different from a world where emissions and climate feedback systems interact to give you six or seven degrees of warming. The latter scenario might not drown Manhattan, but it would probably dramatically expand the earth’s uninhabitable or barely habitable zones, elevating heat stress in warm regions beyond air conditioning’s ability to compensate, while simultaneously wrecking the ecology of food production along the equatorial belt. states, “Human activities are estimated to have caused approximately . of global warming above pre-industrial levels, with a likely range of . to .. Global warming is likely to reach .
between and if it continues to increase at the current rate.” CO equivalent emissions refer to the emissions of greenhouse gas CO, methane, etc. expressed in a common unit by converting amounts of other gases to the equivalent amount of CO with the same effect on global warming. , established in . The first was the World Climate Program, convened partly at the behest of the Carter administration; Congress had also begun looking into the issue around the same time. It took seven years from the establishment of the clean air research panel in until the passage of the first major air quality legislation, so one might have hoped for climate action by, say a date which unfortunately coincided with a surge in Boomer political power. process, and the role of Chair Rajendra Pachauri in particular. None of this changed anything we knew anything that mattered about the reality of climate change, but the deniers succeeded in making climate science an ideological battleground, where the expert consensus was rejected by whole political parties and large sections of the media as itself partisan. The failure of climate policymaking has been a self-reinforcing process. itself, which claims that the whole of agriculture only contributes per cent of global GHG emissions. The World Resources Institute’s global warming flow chart, which is based on IPCC statistics, allocates just . per cent of global greenhouse gases to ‘livestock and manure’. This discrepancy does not necessarily mean that one ure is wrong and the other right. A large group of very clever and well-resourced scientists who have put together an incredibly thoughtful and robust assessment of climate change; the risks and uncertainties. In the past it has had two main shortcomings. First has been the misplaced belief that presenting the arguments ever more clearly with increasing rigour is what is required to win the argument and precipitate appropriate action on climate change. published three major studies between and , concluding in each of them that there is indeed mounting evidence of the dangers of global warming. The evidence has also been reviewed in innumerable studies by the academies of science in individual countries, including one in the United States after President George W. recommends that we reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions to ‘net zero’ by . The concept of ‘net zero’ controversially includes so-called ‘negative emissions’, which presumes the use of technologies that take carbon dioxide from the air and lock it into underground sinks and reservoirs. Examples of adaptation and transformational adaptation. Adapting to further warming requires action at national and sub-national levels and can mean different things to different people in different contexts. While transformational
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