there are currently no options to avoid intolerable risks, but they are theoretically possible . While climate corgi corgivengers marvel avengers dogs lover shirt change is a global issue, impacts are experienced locally. Cities and municipalities are at the frontline of adaptation Rosenzweig , focusing
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of key species , and the ongoing rapid degradation of key ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass and mangroves The acceleration of these changes, coupled with non-climate stresses , pollution, overfishing and unsustainable coastal development, are driving many small-scale fisheries well below the sustainable harvesting levels required to maintain these resources as a source of n . As a result, future scenarios corgivengers marvel avengers dogs lover shirt surrounding climate change and global population growth increasingly project shortages of fish protein for many regions, such as the Pacific Ocean Bell , and Indian Ocean McClanahan . Mitigation of these risks involves marine spatial planning, fisheries repair, sustainable aquaculture, and the development of alternative livelihoods . Other threats concern the increasing incidence of alien species and diseases Working Group II of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report provided an assessment of the literature on the climate risk for natural and human systems across a wide range of environments, sectors and greenhouse gas scenarios, as well as for particular geographic regions . The comprehensive assessment undertaken by AR evaluated the evidence of changes to natural systems, and the impact on human communities and industry.
While impacts varied substantially among systems, sectors and regions, many changes over the past years could be attributed to human driven climate change and its impacts. In particular, AR attributed observed impacts in natural ecosystems to anthropogenic climate change, including changes in phenology, geographic and altitudinal range shifts in flora and fauna, regime shifts and increased tree mortality, all of which can reduce ecosystem functioning and services thereby impacting people. AR also reported increasing evidence of changing patterns of disease and invasive species, as well as growing risks for communities and industry, which are especially important with respect to sea level rise and human vulnerability. Risks of harmful impacts on ecosystems and human systems increase with the rates and magnitudes of warming, ocean acidification, sea level rise and other dimensions of climate change . Future risk is indicated to be high by the observation that natural global climate change at rates lower than current anthropogenic climate change caused significant ecosystem shifts and species extinctions during the past millions of years on land and in the oceans . Many plant and animal species will be unable to adapt locally or move fast enough during the st century to track suitable climates under mid- and high range rates of climate change RCP, RCP. and RCP. ure .a. Coral reefs and polar ecosystems are highly vulnerable. The two types of pathway have different implications for greenhouse gas emissions, as well as for climate change impacts and for achieving sustainable development. For example, the larger and longer an ‘overshoot’, the greater the reliance on practices or technologies that remove COfrom the atmosphere, on top of reducing the sources of emissions . Such ideas for COremoval have not been proven to work at scale and, therefore, run the risk of being less practical, effective or economical than assumed. There is also the risk that the use of COremoval techniques ends up competing for land and water, and if these trade-offs are not appropriately managed, they can adversely affect sustainable development. Additionally, a larger and longer overshoot increases the risk for irreversible climate impacts, such as the onset of the collapse of polar ice shelves and accelerated sea level rise. Climate change adaptation refers to the actions taken to manage the impacts of climate change . The aim is to reduce vulnerability and exposure to the harmful effects of climate change , sea level rise, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity. It also includes exploring the potential beneficial opportunities associated with climate change . Different adaptation pathways can be undertaken. Adaptation can be incremental, or transformational, meaning fundamental attributes of the system are changed . There can be limits to ecosystem-based adaptation or the ability of humans to adapt . If there is no possibility for adaptive actions that can be applied to avoid an intolerable risk, these are referred to as hard adaptation limits, while soft adaptation limits are identified when
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