However, because accidents affect worldwide public acceptance of this industry, questions have been raised i am iron and i forge myself viking warrior shirt about the risk of economic and political pressures weakening the safety of the plants Finon, Budnitz. This raises the issue of international governance of civil nuclear risks and reinforced international
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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries see also Section … Managing coastal stress. Particularly to allow for the landward relocation of coastal ecosystems under a transition to a . warmer world, planning for climate change would need to be integrated with the use of coastlines by humans Saunders , Kelleway . Adaptation options for managing coastal stress include coastal hardening through the building of i am iron and i forge myself viking warrior shirt seawalls and the re-establishment of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves André , Cooper . While the feasibility of the solutions is high, they are expensive to scale . Community-based adaptation . There is medium evidence and high agreement for the use of CbA. The specific actions to take will depend upon the location, context, and vulnerability of the specific community. CbA is defined as ‘a community-led process, based on communities’ priorities, needs, knowledge, and capacities, which aim to empower people to plan for and cope with the impacts of climate change’ Reid . The integration of CbA with ecosystems-based adaptation has been increasingly promoted, especially in efforts to alleviate poverty Mannke, Reid. Its multiple potential co-benefits have made REDD important for local communities, biodiversity and sustainable landscapes
There is low agreement on whether climate impacts will reverse mitigation benefits of restoration Le Page , by increasing the likelihood of disturbance Anderegg , or reinforce them through carbon fertilization Growing evidence suggests that investing in behavioural shifts towards using irrigation technology such as micro-sprinklers or drip irrigation, is an effective and quick adaptation strategy Vas opposed to large dams which have high financial, ecological and social costs Varela-Ortega . While improving irrigation efficiency is technically feasible R. Fishman , and has clear benefits for environmental values feasibility is regionally differentiated as shown by examples as diverse as . Meta-analyses of the effects of drought, elevated CO, and temperature conclude that at local warming and above, aggregate production of wheat, maize, and rice are expected to decrease in both temperate and tropical areas Challinor . These production losses could be lowered if adaptation measures are taken Challinor , such as developing varieties better adapted to changing climate conditions. CCS in the power sector is hardly being realized at scale, mainly because the incremental costs of capture, and the development of transport and storage infrastructures are not sufficiently compensated by market or government incentives . In the two full-scale projects in the power sector mentioned above, part of the capture costs are compensated for by revenues from enhanced oil recovery , demonstrating that EOR helps developing CCS further. EOR is a technique that uses CO to mobilize more oil out of depleting oil fields, leading to additional CO emissions by combusting the additionally recovered oil Cooney . The technological maturity of CO capture options in the power sectors has improved considerably Abanades , Bui , but costs have not come down between and due to limited learning in commercial settings and increased energy and resources costs Rubin . Storage capacity estimates vary greatly, but Section .. as well as literature V. Scott , indicate that perhaps , GtCO could be stored in underground reservoirs. Regional availability of this may not be sufficient, and it requires efforts to have this storage and the corresponding infrastructure available at the necessary rates and times . CO retention in the storage reservoir was recently assessed as over , years for well-managed reservoirs, and for poorly regulated ones Alcalde . A paper reviewing studies on public perception of CCS Seigo , found that social acceptance of CCS is predicted by trust, perceived risks and benefits. The technology itself mattered less than the social context of the project. Though insights on communication of CCS projects to the general public and inhabitants of the area around the CO storage sites have been documented over the years, project stakeholders are not consistently implementing these lessons, although some projects have observed good practices Ashworth . The safety of nuclear plants depends upon the public authorities of each country.
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