with national adaptation plans give countries flexibility to design and adjust their adaptation trajectories as their knight templar one more into the fray into the last good fight i’ll ever know shirt needs evolve and as progress is evaluated over time. A challenge for assessing progress on adaptation globally is the aggregation of many national adaptation
knight templar one more into the fray into the last good fight i’ll ever know shirt
service access Arezki . Technology development and transfer is recognized as an enabler of both mitigation and adaptation in Article in the Paris Agreement as well as in Article . of the original text of the UNFCCC . As previous sections have focused on technology development and diffusion, this section focuses on technology transfer. Technology transfer can adapt technologies to local circumstances, reduce financing costs, develop indigenous technology, and build capabilities to operate, maintain, adapt and innovate on technology globally Ockwell , de Coninck and Sagar. Technology cooperation could decrease global mitigation cost, and enhance knight templar one more into the fray into the last good fight i’ll ever know shirt developing countries’ mitigation contributions Huangliterature has emerged as to how much future GHG emission reductions can be enabled by the rapid progress of general purpose technologies , consisting of information and communication technologies , including artificial intelligence and the internet of things , nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, robotics, and so forth Although these may contribute to limiting warming to ., the potential environmental, social and economic impacts of new technologies are uncertain. Climate policy is more acceptable when costs and benefits are distributed equally, when nature and future generations are protectedand when fair procedures have been followed, including participation by the public or public society organizations . Providing benefits to compensate affected communities for losses due to policy or systems changes enhanced public acceptability in some cases , although people may disagree on what would be a worthwhile compensation Aitken, Cass , or feel they are being bribed Cass , Perlaviciute and Steg. Public acceptability can shape, enable or prevent policy and system changes. Acceptability reflects the extent to which policy or system changes are evaluated favourably. Acceptability is higher when people expect more positive and less negative effects of policy and system changes and Van den Bergh, including climate impacts Schuitema , b. Because of this, policy ‘rewarding’ climate actions is more acceptable than policy ‘punishing’ actions that increase climate risks . Pricing policy is more acceptable when revenues are earmarked for environmental purposes or redistributed towards those affected . Acceptability can increase when people experience positive effects after a policy has been implemented effective policy trials can thus build public support for climate policy see Box .. Knowledge of the causes and consequences of climate change and of ways to reduce GHG emissions is not always accurate which can inhibit climate actions, even when people would be motivated to act.
For example, people overestimate savings from low-energy activities, and underestimate savings from high-energy activities Attari . They know little about ‘embodied’ energy ,, energy needed to produce products; Tobler , including meat de Boer , b. Some people mistake weather for climate Reynolds , or conflate climate risks with other hazards, which can inhibit adequate adaptation Taylor . How do broader socio-economic processes influence urban vulnerabilities and thereby underpin climate change adaptation? This is a systemic challenge originating from a lack of collective societal ownership of the responsibility for climate risk management. Explanations for this situation include competing timeorizons due to self-interest of stakeholders to a more ‘rational’ conception of risk assessment, measured across a risk-tolerance spectrum . The creation of a new Environmental Secretariat assisted in coordination and integration of environmental policies, disaster risk management, development and climate change . The Paris Agreement recognizes adaptation by establishing a global goal for adaptation This is assessed qualitatively, as achieving a temperature goal would determine the level of adaptation ambition required to deal with the consequent risks and impacts . Countries can include domestic adaptation goals in their NDCs, which together
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