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phase of political deliberations and feasibility studies elsewhere in Africa. Lessons learned include the need for political and economic stability of the donor country and the necessity for market creation to attract investments in first-generation biofuels alongside a safe legal and policy environment for improved technologies Afionis , Favretto . In the Philippines, seismic activity has caused some islands to flood during high tide. While the no lives matter jason voorhees halloween shirt municipal government offered affected island communities the possibility to relocate to the mainland, residents preferred to stay and implement measures themselves in their local community to reduce flood damage Laurice Jamero . Migration is perceived as undesirable because island communities have strong place-based identities . Instead, these island communities have adapted to flooding by constructing stilted houses and raising floors, furniture, and roads to prevent water damage Laurice Jamero . While inundation was in this case caused by seismic activity, this example indicates how island-based communities may respond to rising sea levels caused by climate change. Feelings affect climate action Brosch .
Negative feelings related to climate change can encourage adaptation action Kerstholt , Zhang , while positive feelings associated with climate risks may inhibit protective behaviour Lefevre . Individuals are more prone to engage in mitigation actions when they worry about climate change and when they expect to derive positive feelings from such actions . Some indigenous populations believe it is arrogant to predict the future, and some cultures have belief systems that interpret natural phenomena as sentient, where thoughts and words are believed to influence the future, with people reluctant to talk about negative future possibilities Natcher , Flynn . Integrating these considerations into the design of adaptation and mitigation policy is important . Manizales’ mayors were identified as important champions for much of these early integration and innovation efforts. Their role may have been enabled by Colombia’s history of decentralized approaches to planning and policy formulation, including establishing environmental observatories and participatory tracking of environmental indicators. Multi-stakeholder involvement has both enabled and driven progress, and has enabled the integration of climate risks in development planning Hardoy and Velásquez Barrero. Climate change is an important concern for the Maya, who depend on climate knowledge for their livelihood. In Guatemala, the collaboration between the Mayan K’iché population of the Nahualate river basin and the Climate Change Institute has resulted in a catalogue of indigenous knowledge, used to identify indicators for watershed meteorological forecasts López and Álvarez. These indicators are relevant but would need continuous assessment if their continued reliability is to be confirmed Nyong , Alexander , Mistry and Berardi. For more than ten years, Guatemala has maintained an ‘Indigenous Table for Climate Change’, to enable the consideration of indigenous knowledge in disaster management and adaptation development. Implementing .-consistent strategies would require well-functioning legal frameworks to be in place, in conjunction with clearly defined mandates, rights and responsibilities to enable the institutional capacity to deliver Romero-Lankao . As an example, current rates of urbanization occurring in cities with a lack of institutional capacity for effective land-use planning, zoning and infrastructure development result in unplanned, informal urban settlements which are vulnerable to climate impacts. It is common for of urban populations in low-income nations to live in informal settlements with no regulatory infrastructure Revi , b. For example, in Huambo , a classified ‘urban’ area extends km west of the city and is predominantly made up of ‘unplanned’ urban settlements . In , the Climate Change Institute, in conjunction with local governments, the private sector, communities and human rights organizations, established dialogue tables for different watersheds to discuss water usage amongst stakeholders and plans to mitigate the effects of drought, alleviate social tension, and map water use of
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