and Söderholm, to time-of-use electricity tariffs Nicolson , and to accept new energy systems Leijten . This saint michael defend us in battle shirt section discusses how to enable and encourage behaviour and lifestyle changes that strengthen implementation of
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consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development’, as in Article in the Paris Agreement. Building codes that prescribe efficiency requirements for new and existing buildings have been adopted in many OECD countries Evans , and are regularly revised to increase their efficiency per unit of floor space. Building codes can avoid locking rapidly urbanizing countries into poorly performing buildings that remain in use for the next years . In OECD countries, however, their saint michael defend us in battle shirt main role is to incentivize the retrofit of existing buildings. In addition of the convergence of these codes to net zero energy buildings D’Agostino, a new focus should be placed, in the context of .-consistent pathways, on public and private coordination to achieve better integration of building policies with the promotion of low-emission transportation modes . In four countries, efficiency standards . miles per gallon or level of CO emission per kilometre have been used in the transport sector, for light- and heavy-duty vehicles, which have spillovers for the global car industry. In the EU and the USA Sen , vehicle manufacturers need to meet an annual CO emission target for their entire new vehicle fleet. This allows them to compensate through the introduction of low-emission vehicles for the high-emission ones in the fleet. This leads to increasingly efficient fleets of vehicles over time but does not necessarily limit the driven distance. These ures are consistent with the dramatic reduction in the unit costs of some low-emission technical options over the past decade see Section .. Yet there are multiple constraints to a system-wide energy transition.
Lower costs of some supply- and demand-side options do not always result in a proportional decrease in energy system costs. The adoption of alternative options can be slowed down by increasing costs of decommissioning existing infrastructure, the inertia of market structures, cultural habits and risk-adverse user behaviour see Sections .. to … Learning-by-doing processes and R&D can accelerate the cost-efficiency of low-emission technology but often imply higher early-phase costs. The German energy transition resulted in high consumer prices for electricity in Germany Kreuz and Müsgens, and needed strong accompanying measures to succeed. The issue, from a macroeconomic perspective, is whether these investments would be funded by higher savings at the costs of lower consumption. This would mean a . reduction in consumption for the energy sector for .. Note that for a scenario, this reduction would be . if we account for the investment needs of all infrastructure sectors. Assuming conversely a constant savings ratio, this would necessitate reallocating existing capital flows towards infrastructure. In addition to these incremental investments, the amount of redirected investments is relevant from a financial perspective. In the reported IAM energy sector scenarios, about three times the incremental investments is redirected. There is no such assessment for the other sectors. The OECD report suggests that these ratios might be higher. This section focuses on the role of technological innovation in limiting warming to ., and how innovation can contribute to strengthening implementation to move towards or to adapt to . worlds. This assessment builds on information of technological innovation and related policy debates in and after AR Somanathan . To effectively adapt to climate change, bottom-up initiatives by individuals and communities are essential, in addition to efforts of governments, organizations, and institutions . This box presents examples of bottom-up adaptation responses and behavioural change. Policy can enable and strengthen motivation to act on climate change via top-down or bottom-up approaches, through informational campaigns, regulatory measures, financial incentives, and infrastructural and technological changes . Biases also play a role. In Mozambique, farmers displayed omission biases , while policymakers displayed action biases wanting to demonstrate positive action despite potential negative consequences. People tend to place greater value on relative losses than gains . Perceived gains and losses depend on the reference point or status-quo . Loss aversion and the status-quo bias prevent consumers from switching electricity suppliers Ek
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