The impacts on land use, water, nutrients and albedo of BECCS could be alleviated using marine sources of west highland white terrier wvengers marvel avengers dogs lover shirt biomass that could include aquacultured micro and macro flora Hughes , Lenton, . Studies explore alternative techniques to reduce the energy penalty of DACCS van der Giesen . Energy consumption could
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particularly when provided in real-time or immediately after the action Abrahamse , which makes the implications of one’s behaviour more salient Tiefenbeck . Simple information is more effective than detailed and technical data Wilson and . Energy labels Banerjee and Solomon, Stadelmann, visualization techniques Pahl , and ambient persuasive technology can encourage mitigation actions by providing information and feedback in a format that immediately makes sense and hardly requires users’ conscious attention. Information provision is more effective when tailored to the personal situation of individuals, demonstrating clear impacts, and resonating with individuals’ core values . Tailored information prevents information overload, and people are more west highland white terrier wvengers marvel avengers dogs lover shirt motivated to consider and act upon information that aligns with their core values and beliefs Campbell and Kay, Hornsey . Also, tailored information can remove barriers to receive and interpret information faced by vulnerable groups, such as the elderly during heatwaves. Further, prompts can be effective when they serve as reminders to perform a planned action . More knowledge on adaptation is related to higher engagement in adaptation actions in some circumstances Bates , van Kasteren, Hagen . How adaptation is framed in the media can influence the types of options viewed as important in different contexts Boykoff , Moser, Ford and King. Various policy approaches and strategies can encourage and enable climate actions by individuals and organizations. Policy approaches would be more effective when they address key contextual and psycho-social factors influencing climate actions, which differ across contexts and individualn. This suggests that diverse policy approaches would be needed in .ºC-consistent pathways in different contexts and regions. Combinations of policies that target multiple barriers and enabling factors simultaneously can be more effective Nissinen .
Examples of mitigation behaviour and their GHG emission reduction potential. Examples of mitigation and adaptation behaviours relevant for . The measures proposed in NDCs are not legally binding Nemet , further impacting estimates of anticipated emission levels. The aggregation of targets results in high uncertainty Rogelj , which could be reduced with clearer guidelines for compiling future NDCs focused more on energy accounting Rogelj , and increased transparency and comparability Pauw . Several studies estimate global emission levels that would be achieved under the concluded that the full implementation of the unconditional and conditional NDCs are expected to result in global GHG emissions of about and GtCO-eq yr−, respectively Cross-Chapter Box , ure below. It has been proposed that deploying SRM as a supplement to mitigation may reduce increases in global temperature-related extremes and rainfall intensity, and lessen the loss of coral reefs from increasing sea-surface temperatures , but it would not address, or could even worsen Tjiputra , negative effects from continued ocean acidification. This report refrains from using the term ‘geoengineering’ and separates SRM from CDR and other mitigation options see Chapter , Section .. and Glossary. Methane is a much more potent GHG than CO Montzka , , associated with difficult-to-abate emissions in industry and agriculture and with outgassing from lakes, wetlands, and oceans Lockley, Stolaroff , . Enhancing processes that naturally remove methane, either by chemical or biological decomposition Sundqvist , , has been proposed to remove CH. There is low confidence that existing technologies for CHremoval are economically or energetically suitable for large-scale air capture . Methane removal potentials are limited due to its low atmospheric concentration and its low chemical reactivity at ambient conditions.
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