because each official may respond to a distinctive political constituency. vintage garden girl easily distracted by garden and wine poster And the ease of negotiating a final agreement with the union may be severely limited by statutory restrictions,
vintage garden girl easily distracted by garden and wine poster
Using matched panels of CPS workers for 1983–93, we find wage gains of 32 percent among postal entrants and losses of 25 percent among postal leavers . vintage garden girl easily distracted by garden and wine poster Using the six Displaced Worker Surveys for 1984–94, which provide a measure of exogenous switching, we find real wage gains of 29 percent among postal entrants displaced from their previous job; the gain is 43 percent when measured relative to what are wage losses among displaced workers not taking postal jobs. In this section, we provide longitudinal postal premium estimates based on wage changes among postal entrants and leavers. This approach controls for individual fixed effects, in particular unmeasured worker skills. Such an approach creates a natural comparison group, each postal worker’s wage being compared to that same worker’s wage on the prior or subsequent non-postal job.
Longitudinal analysis, which can provide a good approximation of opportunity cost employment, has been recommended as a method for measuring wage premiums for public sector workers (see, for example, Krueger, 1988; Venti, 1986). Examining simple mean wage changes rather than use of regression analysis is reasonable, given that most worker and location characteristics do not change.16 Wage change for postal entrants can be compared to wage change among a control group of private sector workers voluntarily changing industry and occupation as they move from full-time private sector jobs to alternative non-postal jobs. The government officials making decisions as the public “employer” are less likely to act as a cohesive unit than are managers in private industry, in part because different levels of public authority department managers, budgetary officials, and legislative bodies are involved, and in part
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